This is labeled as cognition Z. The assumed relationship between effort and result is cognition Z. These cognitive mini systems are consonant with others, like where students assume that they will not do well if they are not well prepared formally: NON-X is consonant with NON-Y. It does not just have to do with explaining information gathering and processing after decisions. A person who makes a decision continuously finds himself simultaneously in a before and after decision phase. In order to make this clearer we will examine a simple decision process.
The formulation of a problem is a first decision, and the decision of what information should be gathered is a further decision. Also underlying the decision is the choice with regard to formulating alternatives. The assessment of alternatives assumes that the assessment criteria have been decided in advance. It is certainly undeniable that the choice of alternatives also entails other decisions: When should the decision be taken, what is being decided about the choice of alternatives, whether further information should be gathered, whether the problem should be scrutinized again, who should undertake the implementation?
The same goes for the phase of realization. The testing phase also includes detailed decisions: When should the testing take place, according to what standards of measurement, how often, with what methods? Every individual element with the decision making process presents its own decision making process, which again can be divided into a never ending process of further decision making processes. Festinger only focuses on the phase after the choice of alternatives. Irle demonstrates that we always find ourselves both before and after decisions at the same time, in other words continuously occupied with processing, avoiding, or reducing cognitive dissonance.
In this way the reformulated theory of cognitive dissonance has become a very comprehensive theory of information processing. Theses with regard to dissonance intensity and resistance to change are established. According to Festinger , p. It can also be assumed that the dissonance is greater, the more possibly unavoidable deficiencies the chosen alternative displays which likewise increases the attractiveness of the rejected alternative.
Dissonance intensity according to Irle , p. The experienced intensity of dissonance is a function of experienced hypothesis certainty. The more intense the dissonance is experienced to be, the stronger the motivation toward dissonance reduction.
Subjective certainty depends on the frequency with which a hypothesis has been confirmed in the past. The more often a person has found a hypothesis to be confirmed, and the more seldom it has been refuted, the more certain he is that the hypothesis is correct. Subjective certainty is also triggered by observing other people. The more other people there are who hold this hypothesis, the more likely it is that this hypothesis will be believed. According to this that cognition X, NON-Y, or Z will be changed, whose change will bring the least amount of additional disturbance within the cognitive system.
The problem is again that the involved cognitions X, Y, or Z can all be connected with other cognitions. Therefore if one of the involved cognitions is altered, then it will become dissonant in relation to other cognitions. The person now has to find out that the auto he has bought has a whole list of problems. He could change cognition X, but that would perhaps mean placing his entire self concept in question, and he would furthermore suffer a loss of face in his circle of friends at least he may fear that , because he has often presented himself as an expert on cars.
The fact that he has himself chosen the car Z can hardly be denied. Perhaps when objectively considered another person has had, to a negligible extent, some influence. Whether the person discards Z cognition ascribing the blame to the other person , may depend on the particular relationship shared by these people. The person can certainly reinterpret the quality characteristics of the car in retrospect where this is oriented toward alleviating the perceived deficiencies in his subjective view.
Perhaps the idea will be embraced that it is a production error, just as there is a chance with any brand that one will have lousy luck, and then the garage can be praised for the manner in which it again and again eliminates the problems. A cognition is all the more resistant to change, the more relationships to other cognitions it has for the given person Irle, , p.
In other words the change is caught up with the rest of the cognitive system, involving a highly networked cognition representing more significant complexity than a less networked cognition. By contrast dissonance from the purchase of cheap quality goods can possibly be relatively easily reduced through the devaluation of product characteristics accepting a mistaken purchase. The same way of proceeding is not as easily engaged in with regard to products of high value, because going back on the action is connected with greater expenditure.
A cognition will be changed if the cognitive dissonance that has arisen is greater than the resistance to changing the given cognition.
If this is the case with regard to more than one cognition within the cognitive unit X, Y—or NON-X, NON-Y—and Z then that cognition will be changed which most easily satisfies the dictates of this relation. What is meant by it is the fact that cognitions will be more resistant to change, the more the given person feels himself to be bound to these cognitions. The measure of how bound a person is to a given matter is what is meant by commitment. For example, if a person has come out in public for a particular brand it will be significantly more difficult for him to let go of his opinion, even in the case of intensely felt cognitive dissonance, especially if consumption is not taking place in an exclusively private, non-public sphere.
Lets assume that after thorough but not conclusive examinations, a doctor inwardly settles on a diagnosis. Will he engage in subsequent examinations in an unbiased manner? He has tentatively let a colleague he is friends with know what he suspects, and subsequently he also tells several other colleagues. We have now become aware of several cumulative levels of commitments.
How will later, in-depth results that contradict the original diagnosis be assessed?
Why do people develop mutual sympathy, feel affection toward, share similar preferences, in musical, fashion and in other directions? Why, conversely, is it difficult to like a product that is also liked by a person we are not attracted to? In the language of dissonance theory people undergo cognitive dissonance when they apprehend that objects that they do not like are highly valued by others, or on the other hand when others do not like objects that they themselves highly value.
The situation becomes more intense when the possible relationships between people are included. It will appear more serious if P establishes that another person that P really likes does not share her views about whatever object, than if that other person is someone she dislikes. From the possible relationships between two people and an object, 8 relationship models can be derived, of which four are without tension, being according to Heider in a balanced state, and where four are in a state of unbalanced tension, again according to Heider. It can easily be seen that something that is a matter of opinion can also serve as an object between two people.
We can easily imagine a state in which P1 apprehends that another person P2 likes the same object. Equally straight forward is a situation where a person likes an object, and apprehends that another person P2 does not like the object, but where this person is disliked by P1, perhaps as a consequence of that person not liking the object, and toward the end of reducing cognitive dissonance.
The third situation is one where P1 dislikes P2 as well as disliking the object, the subject of opinion, and at the same time apprehends that P2 likes the object. The fourth situation involves two people, P1 and P2 in a positive relationship, who both dislike an object.
In general all balanced states can be viewed as consequences of dissonance reduction after experiencing the following unbalanced states. A situation is unbalanced when P1 finds out that a disliked person P2 shares one of his preferences: The same music is liked, membership in the same club is shared, etc. Equally unbalanced is a situation where someone we are very fond of, really likes something we have rejected, or conversely, when a person we are very fond of rejects an object we really like.
The last unbalanced state is one where we apprehend that a person we dislike shares with us aversion for an object.
In general, whenever we perceive difference of opinion with people who we are favorably disposed toward, an unbalanced state arises, likewise when we perceive that we share the same opinion with people we have rejected. An unproblematic situation is one where share the same opinion with people we like or one where we have a difference of opinion with people we dislike.
Final Remarks Concerning the Theory The theory of cognitive dissonance is considered to be one the most significant of social psychological theories Aronson, , which has spurred a very large quantity of empirical studies and which has undergone a great many reformulations, of which we have only been able to examine a few.
It is true though, that Joule and Beauvois have come up with a radical perspective: They believe that they can reject all!
Aufgabenfeldern mit. December Changing leadership models Time period Type of leader Message of the leader modern age Attila the Hun Follow me, or else you will be punished! Nach Festinger befindet sich eine Person vor einer Entscheidung bzw. On the other hand Mills was not able to thoroughly prove that in all experiments ads for the rejected alternative were selectively avoided. Schnitzler, A.
Aronson , p. That is true of cognitive emotion theory, of attribution theory, the theory of social perception, the theory of social comparison, etc. That does not mean that human behavior proceeds on a fundamentally irrational basis, but it does mean that a large portion of it does. It is not just about winning over new customers via advertising; it also has to do with strengthening the trust people have in the characteristics of products they have already bought.
We can assume that people will tend to close out advertisement of certain brands and that they will tend to avoid the advertisements of other brands Cf. Frey, , p. The focus is not just on advertising as an instrument of marketing communication.
Cognitive dissonance can play a role in all areas of marketing communication. A further important area of application is social marketing. In this connection Frey , p.
A lot of information having to do with looking into cancer or other ailments gets caught up with avoidance mechanisms on the part of the target groups. Unsavory information about threats to health may be devalued or deemed by a person to be irrelevant. This kind of information can be presented in such a way as to make avoidance seem impossible. Avoidance mechanisms can be avoided in that the utility and believability of dissonant information can be so presented as to make avoidance more difficult than observing it.
In any case, as plausible as it may be, we cannot assume that useful information will automatically be meaningfully processed. If one wants to spur people on to make a donation, success will come more readily if those people have already been persuaded to do some small favor like for example wearing a pin or signing a petition Cf. Aronson, , p.
Whoever has already taken a small first step will experience dissonance when he avoids taking a bigger step. As an initial effort therefore, systematic charity marketing needs to get the target group to perform some easily done task. Dissonance theory is relevant in personnel decisions and in the subsequent performance assessments.
During job interviews a first impression may lead to performance relevant characteristics being correspondingly perceived. Frey and Irle , p. A comparable situation is that of oral exams in universities and in other areas of education. In personnel politics there are consequences as far as the perception of performance of other people is concerned.